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五金冲压车间真是不简单,存在这么多特点

五金冲压车间真是不简单,存在这么多特点

作者:五金冲压编辑    来源:本站原创    发布时间:2017-04-15T23:45:47    浏览量:
五金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)(jian)里面(mian)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)出来的(de)(de)五金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)件是汽(qi)车生(sheng)产上必不可少(shao)的(de)(de)一部(bu)分。汽(qi)车生(sheng)产的(de)(de)四大工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)中就以冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)为首,所以后面(mian)车身、涂装、总装三(san)个工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)车间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)生(sheng)产直接受到(dao)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)影响。但是冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)(jian)与(yu)其他(ta)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)车间(jian)(jian)不同的(de)(de)是,冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)(jian)有(you)(you)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)水平要求高、工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)复杂系数大、投(tou)资规模大、生(sheng)产设备多、制(zhi)造周期(qi)长等特点(dian)。冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)(jian)存在的(de)(de)一些特点(dian)有(you)(you):
1,冲压车间(jian)生产线布局
冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)能力(li),安排相(xiang)(xiang)应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。由于产(chan)(chan)(chan)品所(suo)(suo)需(xu)(xu)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong),五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)所(suo)(suo)需(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)数也(ye)存在(zai)差异,每(mei)(mei)条冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)(xian)一般由台(tai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)机组成。冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)(xian)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)可以分为不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)(xian),一般情况(kuang)下,每(mei)(mei)条生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)要(yao)根(gen)(gen)据(ju)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)来生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian),而且这些五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)都(dou)必(bi)须(xu)适合在(zai)该生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上进行生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)。因为每(mei)(mei)条冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上要(yao)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)几(ji)种不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)类别的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺,而每(mei)(mei)种工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺所(suo)(suo)需(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)又不(bu)(bu)(bu)相(xiang)(xiang)同(tong),所(suo)(suo)以每(mei)(mei)条生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上要(yao)分配不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。例如(ru),五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)第一道(dao)拉深工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)需(xu)(xu)要(yao)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对较(jiao)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang),而翻边、冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)孔等(deng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)需(xu)(xu)要(yao)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对较(jiao)小的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。所(suo)(suo)以,一般情况(kuang)下,一条生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上会有(you)两台(tai)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对较(jiao)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)来进行拉深等(deng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作,而剩余几(ji)个工(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)则需(xu)(xu)要(yao)几(ji)台(tai)吨(dun)位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对较(jiao)小的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。这样(yang)既能满(man)足生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求,又充(chong)分利用了设备资源,减少了不(bu)(bu)(bu)必(bi)要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)浪(lang)费。
2,五金冲压(ya)件工(gong)艺复杂
车身车间需(xu)要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)各类五(wu)金冲压(ya)件(jian)(jian),除(chu)部(bu)分外购(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)半成品外,都(dou)是(shi)由冲压(ya)车间进(jin)行(xing)生产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)。每一(yi)个(ge)五(wu)金冲压(ya)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)一(yi)般要(yao)经过道工(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong),主要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)有开(kai)卷落(luo)料、拉伸、整形、切(qie)边、冲孔、翻边等(deng)。其(qi)中,开(kai)卷落(luo)料是(shi)在进(jin)行(xing)冲压(ya)生产(chan)(chan)之(zhi)前(qian)将(jiang)板料放(fang)在落(luo)料机上,将(jiang)其(qi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)为适合冲压(ya)生产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)几(ji)何形状(zhuang)。不同的(de)(de)(de)(de)冲压(ya)件(jian)(jian)需(xu)要(yao)不同的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)序(xu),而不同的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)则需(xu)要(yao)更换不同的(de)(de)(de)(de)模(mo)具进(jin)行(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)。由于每个(ge)五(wu)金冲压(ya)件(jian)(jian)都(dou)有固定的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线,所以(yi)生产(chan)(chan)五(wu)金冲压(ya)件(jian)(jian)复杂的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线导(dao)致了安(an)排生产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)难(nan)度。
3,两(liang)端同时进(jin)行的生产(chan)线
根据(ju)冲(chong)压线的(de)生产(chan)(chan)工艺要(yao)求(qiu),在(zai)为(wei)每道工序安排(pai)不同吨位的(de)冲(chong)床时,一般按(an)照从(cong)两端到中间分别安排(pai)高中低吨位的(de)顺(shun)序布局。这样(yang)双向(xiang)生产(chan)(chan)就能大(da)(da)大(da)(da)提高冲(chong)压车间的(de)生产(chan)(chan)效(xiao)率(lv)(lv)和冲(chong)床的(de)利用率(lv)(lv),从(cong)而降低生产(chan)(chan)成本。成本的(de)一个(ge)巨(ju)大(da)(da)的(de)浪(lang)费。
4,分批轮番生产(chan)
冲压车间在生产五金冲压件时,不是一次只生产一种产品,也不是一次将本周期内计划生产的冲压件全部生产完,而是在考虑生产换模时间、板材切割数量以及生产经济性的基础上,采用分批轮番生产。分批轮番生产是指将生产计划周期内安排生产的五金冲压件按照车身车间的需求分为若干批次,每一批次一天最多生产一批,最终完成计划周期内的数量。分批轮番生产的优点是既不会使单批五金冲压件的生产时间过长,影响其他五金冲压件的生产,继而导致下游车间的使用,又能减少生产成本。
冲压车间加工
5,生产批量的变化(hua)约(yue)束(shu)
冲(chong)压(ya)车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)的生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)计(ji)划(hua)是(shi)由车(che)(che)(che)身(shen)车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)确定需(xu)要(yao)(yao)的冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)种类、数量以(yi)及该(gai)冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)在冲(chong)压(ya)车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)的库存情(qing)况(kuang)决(jue)定的。但是(shi)在五金冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)的生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)过程中,会(hui)存在许多不确定的因素,如原材料短缺、车(che)(che)(che)身(shen)车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)需(xu)求发(fa)生(sheng)变(bian)化、冲(chong)床、模具等(deng)出现故障等(deng),使(shi)得(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量发(fa)生(sheng)变(bian)化。但是(shi)考(kao)虑到生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量太小(xiao)会(hui)导致(zhi)换模次(ci)数增(zeng)加(jia),而生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量太大(da)会(hui)导致(zhi)成品件(jian)库存堆积,这(zhei)都会(hui)使(shi)得(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)成本(ben)增(zeng)加(jia),所以(yi)要(yao)(yao)给生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量的变(bian)化确定一个较(jiao)为合(he)理的范围。
6,设备能力(li)约(yue)束
由于(yu)五(wu)金冲压(ya)件的(de)(de)生产(chan)工(gong)艺各不相(xiang)同(tong),而且每个(ge)生产(chan)工(gong)艺所需的(de)(de)冲床的(de)(de)吨位也(ye)不相(xiang)同(tong),所以在生产(chan)加工(gong)时必(bi)须要做到(dao)工(gong)件的(de)(de)工(gong)序在合适的(de)(de)机床上进行加工(gong)。
7,有运输时间的柔性生(sheng)产
冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间(jian)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)时,五金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)从第一道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)线,一直到(dao)最(zui)后一道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)完(wan)成(cheng)才能(neng)使五金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)下线,将质量合格的(de)(de)成(cheng)品件(jian)放入仓库(ku)。当(dang)五金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)某道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)在(zai)(zai)冲(chong)(chong)床上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)后,如(ru)果(guo)下道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)不发生(sheng)变化(hua),则仍在(zai)(zai)该压(ya)(ya)力机上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),此时将完(wan)成(cheng)第一道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)半成(cheng)品在(zai)(zai)该冲(chong)(chong)床上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)第二道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu),不存在(zai)(zai)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)时间(jian)。如(ru)果(guo)下道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)发生(sheng)变化(hua),则需要将五金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)转(zhuan)移到(dao)下一台冲(chong)(chong)床上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),或者放在(zai)(zai)传输(shu)(shu)带上(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)等待加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。由(you)于两道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)之(zhi)间(jian)存在(zai)(zai)距(ju)离,所(suo)(suo)以就(jiu)会产(chan)(chan)生(sheng)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)时间(jian),而且运(yun)输(shu)(shu)时间(jian)是由(you)两道工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)间(jian)的(de)(de)距(ju)离决(jue)定的(de)(de)。所(suo)(suo)以,在(zai)(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)时需要的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)越多(duo),所(suo)(suo)占用的(de)(de)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)时间(jian)就(jiu)越长。而运(yun)输(shu)(shu)时间(jian)却比(bi)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)时间(jian)大(da)的(de)(de)多(duo),所(suo)(suo)以不能(neng)忽略生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)过程中的(de)(de)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)转(zhuan)移时间(jian)。
综上所述(shu),冲(chong)压车间(jian)(jian)存在的这(zhei)些特点导致(zhi)了它的生产(chan)节(jie)拍不能与其他三(san)大工艺(yi)车间(jian)(jian)保持一致(zhi)。虽然车身车间(jian)(jian)提出生产(chan)要求,但冲(chong)压车间(jian)(jian)仍需根(gen)据自身条件制定生产(chan)计划。这(zhei)使得冲(chong)压车间(jian)(jian)的生产(chan)计划和(he)生产(chan)调度更加困难(nan)。
 

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